History of Somalia

Somalia (Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومالaṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya, Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفدراليةJumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fideraaliya) and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

In antiquity, Somalia was an important centre for commerce with the rest of the ancient world,[1][2] and according to most scholars,[3][4] it is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt.[5][6] During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Sultanate, Adal Sultanate, Warsangali Sultanate, andSultanate of the Geledi.

In the late nineteenth century, through a succession of treaties with these kingdoms, the British and Italians gained control of parts of the coast, and established British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland.[7][8] In the interior, Muhammad Abdullah Hassan‘s Dervish Statesuccessfully repulsed the British Empire four times and forced it to retreat to the coastal region,[9] but the Dervishes were finally defeated in 1920 by British airpower.[10] Italy acquired full control of the northeastern, central and southern parts of the territory after successfully waging a Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo.[8] This occupation lasted until 1941, when it was replaced by a British military administration. Northwestern Somalia would remain aprotectorate, while northeastern, central and southern Somalia by agreement became a United Nations Trusteeship on 1 April 1950, with a promise of independence after 10 years. On 1 July 1960, the two regions united as planned to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government. The Somali National Assembly, headed by Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf, approved the act uniting former Italian Somaliland with British Somaliland, establishing the Republic of Somalia.[11]


Neolithic rock art at the Laas Geel complex depicting a camel.

Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here.[12] The oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE.[13] The stone implements from the Jalelo site in the north were also characterized in 1909 as important artefacts demonstrating the archaeological universality during the Paleolithic between the East and the West.[14]

According to linguists, the first Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family’s proposed urheimat (“original homeland”) in the Nile Valley,[15] or the Near East.[16] Other scholars propose that the Afro-Asiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there.[17]

The Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back around 5,000 years, and has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows.[18] Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback. The rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1,000 to 3,000 BCE.[19][20]Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somalia lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals. Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old.[21][22]


Land of Punt[edit]

Main article: Land of Punt

Ancient pyramidical structures, mausoleums, ruined cities and stone walls found in Somalia (such as the Wargaade Wall) are evidence of an old sophisticated civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula.[23][24] The findings of archaeological excavations and research in Somalia show that this civilization enjoyed a lucrative trading relationship with Ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since the second millennium BC. This supports the hypothesis of Somalia and/or the adjacent Horn territories corresponding with the ancient Land of Punt.[23][25] The Puntites traded myrrh, spices, gold, ebony, short-horned cattle, ivory and frankincense with the Ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians, Babylonians, Indians, Chinese and Romans through their commercial ports. An Ancient Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati.[23]

Ancient maritime history[edit]

The Silk Road extending from southernEurope through Arabia, Somalia, Egypt,Persia, India and Java until it reaches China.

Ancient Somalis domesticated the camel somewhere between the third millennium and second millennium BC from where it spread toAncient Egypt and North Africa.[26] In the classical period, the Somali city-states of Mosylon, Opone, Malao, Sarapion, Mundus,Essina and Tabae in Somalia developed a lucrative trade network connecting with merchants from Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Greece, Parthian Persia, Sheba, Nabataea and the Roman Empire. They used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as thebeden to transport their cargo.

After the Roman conquest of the Nabataean Empire and the Roman naval presence at Aden to curb pillaging, Somali and Gulf Arab merchants by agreement barred Indian ships from trading in the free port cities of the Arabian peninsula[27] to protect the interests of Somali and Arab merchants in the extremely lucrative ancient Red SeaMediterranean Sea commerce.[28] However, Indian merchants continued to trade in the port cities of the Somali peninsula, which was free from Roman interference.[29]

The Indian merchants for centuries brought large quantities of cinnamon from Sri Lanka and Indonesia to Somalia and Arabia. This is said to have been the best kept secret of the Somali and Gulf Arab merchants in their trade with the Roman and Greek world. The Romans and Greeks believed the source of cinnamon to have been the Somali peninsula, but in reality, the highly valued product was brought to Somalia by way of Indian ships.[30] Through collusive agreement by Somali and Gulf Arab traders, Indian/Chinese cinnamon was also exported for far higher prices to North Africa, the Near East and Europe, which made the cinnamon trade a very profitable revenue generator, especially for the Somali merchants through whose hands large quantities were shipped across ancient sea and land routes.[28]


Ruins of the Sultanate of Adal inZeila, Somalia.

The history of Islam in the Horn of Africa is as old as the religion itself.[31] The early persecuted Muslims fled to the Axumite port city ofZeila in present-day Somalia to seek protection from the Quraysh at the court of the Axumite Emperor in modern Ethiopia. Some of the Muslims that were granted protection are said to have settled in several parts of the Horn of Africa to promote the religion.[32] The victory of the Muslims over the Quraysh in the 7th century had a significant impact on Somalia’s merchants and sailors, as their Arab trading partners had now all adopted Islam and the major trading routes in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea now became part of a trade network known as Pax Islamica. Through commerce, Islam spread amongst the Somali population in the coastal cities of Somalia. Instability in the Arabian Peninsula saw several migrations of Arab families to Somalia’s coastal cities, who then contributed another significant element to the growing popularity of Islam in the Somali peninsula.[33]

Engraving of the 13th century Fakr ad-Din Mosque built by Fakr ad-Din, the first Sultan of the Sultanate of Mogadishu.

For many years, Mogadishu stood as the pre-eminent city in the بلاد البربر, Bilad-al-Barbar (“Land of the Berbers“), which was the medieval Arabic term for the Horn of Africa.[34][35][36]

The Sultanate of Mogadishu became the center of Islam on the East African coast, and Somali merchants established a colony inMozambique to extract gold from the Monomopatan mines in Sofala.[37] In northern Somalia, Adal was in its early stages a small trading community established by the newly converted Horn of Africa Muslim merchants, who were predominantly Somali according to Arab andSomali chronicles. The century between 1150 and 1250 marked a decisive turn in the role of Islam in Somali history. Following his visit to the city, the 12th century Syrian historian Yaqut al-Hamawi wrote that Mogadishu was inhabited by dark-skinned Berbers, the ancestors of the modern Somalis.[38][39] The Adal Sultanate was now a center of a commercial empire stretching from Cape Guardafui to Hadiya. The Adalites then came under the influence of the expanding Horn African Kingdom of Ifat, and prospered under its patronage. The capital of the Ifat was Zeila, situated in northern present-day Somalia, from where the Ifat army marched to conquer the ancient Kingdom of Shoa in 1270.

The Warsangali Sultanate was a kingdom centered in northeastern and in some parts of southeastern Somalia. It was one of the largest sultanates ever established in the territory, and, at the height of its power, included the Sanaag region and parts of the northeastern Bari region of the country, an area historically known as Maakhir or the Maakhir Coast. The Sultanate was founded in the late 13th century in northern Somalia by a group of Somalis from the Warsangali branch of the Darodclan, and was ruled by the descendants of the Gerad Dhidhin.[40]

Mogadishan currency – TheSultanate of Mogadishu was an important monetary supporter of Adal.

The Muslim and Christian communities of modern Somalia and Ethiopia enjoyed friendly relations for centuries. The conquest of Shoa ignited a rivalry for supremacy between the Christian Solomonids and the Muslim Ifatites which resulted in several devastating wars and ultimately ended in a Solomonic victory over the Kingdom of Ifat. Parts of northwestern Somalia came under the rule of the Solomonids in medieval times, especially during the reign of Amda Seyon I (r. 1314-1344). In 1403 or 1415 (under Emperor Dawit I or Emperor Yeshaq I, respectively) measures were taken against the Muslim Sultanate of Adal. The Emperor eventually captured King Sa’ad ad-Din II of the Walashma dynasty in Zeila and had him executed. The Walashma Chronicle, however, records the date as 1415, which would make the Ethiopian victor Emperor Yeshaq I. After the war, the reigning king had his minstrels compose a song praising his victory, which contains the first written record of the word “Somali”. Sa’ad ad-Din II’s family was subsequently given safe haven at the court of the King of Yemen, where his sons regrouped and planned their revenge on the Solomonids.

The oldest son Sabr ad-Din II built a new capital eastwards of Zeila known as Dakkar and began referring to himself as the King of Adal. He continued the war against the Solomonic Empire. Despite his army’s smaller size, he was able to defeat the Solomonids at the battles of Serjan and Zikr Amhara and consequently pillaged the surrounding areas. Many similar battles were fought between the Adalites and the Solomonids with both sides achieving victory and suffering defeat but ultimately Sultan Sabr ad-Din II successfully managed to drive the Solomonic army out of Adal territory. He died a natural death and was succeeded by his brother Mansur ad-Din who invaded the capital and royal seat of the Solomonic Empire and drove Emperor Dawit II to Yedaya where according to al-Maqrizi, Sultan Mansur destroyed a Solomonic army and killed the Emperor. He then advanced to the mountains of Mokha where he encountered a 30,000 strong Solomonic army. The Adalite soldiers surrounded their enemies and for two months besieged the trapped Solomonic soldiers until a truce was declared in Mansur’s favour.

Almnara Tower, Mogadishu.

Later on in the campaign, the Adalites were struck by a catastrophe when Sultan Mansur and his brother Muhammad were captured in battle by the Solomonids. Mansur was immediately succeeded by the youngest brother of the familyJamal ad-Din II. Sultan Jamal reorganized the army into a formidable force and defeated the Solomonic armies atBale, Yedeya and Jazja. Emperor Yeshaq I responded by gathering a large army and invaded the cities of Yedeya and Jazja but was repulsed by the soldiers of Jamal. Following this success, Jamal organized another successful attack against the Solomonic forces and inflicted heavy casualties in what was reportedly the largest Adalite army ever fielded. As a result, Yeshaq was forced to withdraw towards the Blue Nile over the next five months, while Jamal ad Din’s forces pursued them and looted much gold on the way, although no engagement ensued.

After returning home, Jamal sent his brother Ahmad with the Christian battle-expert Harb Jaush to successfully attack the province of Dawaro. Despite his losses, Emperor Yeshaq was still able to continue field armies against Jamal. Sultan Jamal continued to advance further into the Abyssinian heartland. However, Jamal upon hearing of Yeshaq’s plan to send several large armies to attack three different areas of Adal, including the capital returned to Adal where he fought the Solomonic forces at Harjai and according to al-Maqrizi this is where the Emperor Yeshaq died in battle. The young Sultan Jamal ad-Din II at the end of his reign had outperformed his brothers and forefathers in the war arena and became the most successful ruler of Adal to date. Within a few years, however, Jamal was assassinated by either disloyal friends or cousins around 1432 or 1433, and was succeeded by his brother Badlay ibn Sa’ad ad-Din. Sultan Badlay continued the campaigns of his younger brother and began several successful expeditions against the Christian empire. He recovered the Kingdom of Bali and began preparations of a major Adalite offensive into the Ethiopian Highlands. He successfully collected funding from surrounding Muslim kingdoms as far away as the Kingdom of Mogadishu.[41] These ambitious plans however were thrown out the war chamber when King Badlay died during the invasion of Dawaro. He was succeeded by his sonMuhammad ibn Badlay who sent envoys to the Sultan of Mamluk Egypt to gather support and arms in the continuing war against the Christian empire. The Adalite ruler Muhammad and the Solomonic ruler Baeda Maryam agreed to a truce and both states in the following decades saw an unprecedented period of peace and stability.

Early modern[edit]

Eyl Castle, Somalia.

Sultan Muhammad was succeeded by his son Shams ad Din while Emperor Baeda Maryam was succeeded by his son Eskender. During this time period warfare broke out again between the two states and Emperor Eskender invaded Dakkar where he was stopped by a large Adalite army who destroyed the Solomonic army to such an extent that no further expeditions were carried out for the remaining of Eskender’s reign. Adal however continued to raid the Christian empire unabated under the General Mahfuz, the leader of the Adalite war machine who annually invaded the Christian territories. Eskender was succeeded by Emperor Na’od who tried to defend the Christians from General Mahfuz but he too was also killed in battle by the Adalite army in Ifat.

Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi‘s pioneering use of cannons supplied by the Ottomans figured prominently in hisConquest of Ethiopia.[42]

At the turn of the 16th century Adal regrouped and around 1527 under the charismatic leadership of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Gurey in Somali, Gragn in Amharic, both meaning “left-handed”), Adal invaded Abyssinia. Adalite armies with Ottoman support and arms marched into Ethiopia and caused considerable damage on the highland state. Many historic churches, manuscripts and settlements were looted and burned during the campaigns.[43] Adal’s use of firearms, still only rarely used in Ethiopia, allowed the conquest of well over half of Ethiopia, reaching as far north as Tigray. The complete conquest of Ethiopia was averted by the timely arrival of a Portuguese expedition led by Cristóvão da Gama, son of the famed navigator Vasco da Gama.[44] The Portuguese had been in the area earlier in early 16th centuries (in search of the legendary priest-king Prester John), and although a diplomatic mission from Portugal, led by Rodrigo de Lima, had failed to improve relations between the countries, they responded to the Ethiopian pleas for help and sent a military expedition to their fellow Christians. A Portuguese fleet under the command of Estêvão da Gama was sent fromPortuguese India and arrived at Massawa in February 1541. Here he received an ambassador from the Emperor beseeching him to send help against the Muslims, and in July following a force of 400 musketeers, under the command of Cristóvão da Gama, younger brother of Estêvão, marched into the interior, and being joined by Ethiopian troops they were at first successful against the Muslims but they were subsequently defeated at the Battle of Wofla (28 August 1542), and their commander captured and executed. On 21 February 1543, however, a joint Portuguese-Ethiopian force defeated the Muslim army at the Battle of Wayna Daga, in which Ahmed Gurey was killed and the war won. Ahmed Gurey’s widow married his nephew Nur ibn Mujahid, in return for his promise to avenge Ahmed’s death, who succeeded Ahmed Gurey, and continued hostilities against his northern adversaries until he killed the Ethiopian Emperor in his second invasion of Ethiopia.

Barawa city was an important medieval centre of Somali enterprise.

During the age of the Ajurans, the sultanates and republics of Merca, Mogadishu, Barawa, Hobyo and their respective ports flourished and had a lucrative foreign commerce with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, India, Venetia,[45] Persia, Egypt, Portugal and as far away as China. Vasco da Gama, who passed by Mogadishu in the 15th century, noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its centre and many mosques with cylindrical minarets.[46] In the 16th century, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya in India sailed to Mogadishu with cloths and spices, for which they in return received gold, wax and ivory. Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants.[47]

Model of a medieval Mogadishanship.

Mogadishu, the center of a thriving weaving industry known as toob benadir (specialized for the markets in Egypt and Syria),[48] together with Merca and Barawa also served as transit stops forSwahili merchants from Mombasa and Malindi and for the gold trade from Kilwa.[49] Jewish merchants from the Hormuz brought their Indian textile and fruit to the Somali coast in exchange for grain and wood,[50] Trading relations were established with Malacca in the 15th century[51] with cloth, ambergris and porcelain being the main commodities of the trade.[52] Giraffes, zebras and incense were exported to the Ming Dynasty of China, which established Somali merchants as leaders in the commerce between the Asia and Africa[53] and influenced the Chinese language with the Somali language in the process. Hindu merchants from Surat and Southeast African merchants from Pate, seeking to bypass both the Portuguese blockade and Omani meddling, used the Somali ports of Merca and Barawa (which were out of the two powers’ jurisdiction) to conduct their trade in safety and without interference.[54]

In 1660, the Portuguese inMombasa surrendered to a jointSomaliOmani force.[55]

The 16th century Somali-Portuguese wars in East Africa meant that geopolitical tensions would remain high and the increased contact between Somali sailors and Ottoman corsairs worried the Portuguese who sent a punitive expedition against Mogadishu under João de Sepúvelda, which was unsuccessful.[56] Ottoman-Somali cooperation against the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean reached a high point in the 1580s when Ajuran clients of the Somali coastal cities began to sympathize with the Arabs and Swahilis under Portuguese rule and sent an envoy to the Turkish corsair Mir Ali Bey for a joint expedition against the Portuguese. He agreed and was joined by a Somali fleet, which began attacking Portuguese colonies in Southeast Africa.[57] The Somali-Ottoman offensive managed to drive out the Portuguese from several important cities such as Pate, Mombasa andKilwa. However, the Portuguese governor sent envoys to India requesting a large Portuguese fleet. This request was answered and it reversed the previous offensive of the Muslims into one of defense. The Portuguese armada managed to re-take most of the lost cities and began punishing their leaders, but they refrained from attacking Mogadishu.[58]

In the early modern period, successor states of the Adal and Ajuran empires began to flourish in Somalia. These were the Warsangali Sultanate, the Bari Dynasties and the Gobroon dynasty. They continued the tradition of castle-building and seaborne trade established by previous Somali empires.

19th century[edit]

Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim, the third Sultan of the House of Gobroon, started the Golden age of the Gobroon dynasty. His army came out victorious during the Bardheere jihad, which restored stability in the region and revitalized the East African ivory trade. He also received presents and had cordial relations with the rulers of neighbouring and distant kingdoms such as the Omani, Wituland and Yemeni sultans. Sultan Ibrahim’s son Ahmed Yusuf succeeded him and was one of the most important figures in 19th century East Africa, receiving tribute from Omani governors and creating alliances with important Muslim families on the East African coast. In northern Somalia, the Gerad Dynasty conducted trade with Yemen and Persia and competed with the merchants of the Bari Dynasty. The Gerads and the Bari Sultans built impressive palaces, castles and fortresses and had close relations with many different empires in the Near East.

In the late 19th century, after the Berlin Conference, European powers began the Scramble for Africa, which inspired the Dervish leaderMohammed Abdullah Hassan to rally support from across the Horn of Africa and begin one of the longest colonial resistance wars ever. In several of his poems and speeches, Hassan emphasized that the British “have destroyed our religion and made our children their children” and that the Christian Ethiopians in league with the British were bent upon plundering the political and religious freedom of the Somali nation. He soon emerged as “a champion of his country’s political and religious freedom, defending it against all Christian invaders.” Hassan issued a religious ordinance that any Somali national who did not accept the goal of unity of Somalia and would not fight under his leadership would be considered as kafir or gaal. He soon acquired weapons from Ottoman Empire, Sudan, and other Islamic and/or Arabian countries, and appointed ministers and advisers to administer different areas or sectors of Somalia. In addition, Hassan gave a clarion call for Somali unity and independence, in the process organizing his follower-warriors. His Dervish movement had an essentially military character, and the Dervish state was fashioned on the model of a Salihiya brotherhood. It was characterized by a rigid hierarchy and centralization. Though Hassan threatened to drive the Christians into the sea, he committed the first attack by launching his first major military offensive with his 1,500 Dervish equipped with 20 modern rifles on the British soldiers stationed in the region.

He repulsed the British in four expeditions and had relations with the Central Powers of the Ottoman and German Empires.

20th century[edit]

In 1920, the Dervish state collapsed after intensive British aerial bombardments, and Dervish territories were subsequently turned into a protectorate. The dawn of fascism in the early 1920s heralded a change of strategy for Italy, as the north-eastern sultanates were soon to be forced within the boundaries of La Grande Somalia according to the plan ofFascist Italy. With the arrival of Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi on 15 December 1923, things began to change for that part of Somaliland. Italy had access to these areas under the successive protection treaties, but not direct rule. The Fascist government had direct rule only over the Benadir territory Given the defeat of the Dervish movement in the early 1920s and the rise of fascism in Europe, on 10 July 1925, Mussolini gave the green light to De Vecchi to start the takeover of the north-eastern sultanates. Everything was to be changed and the treaties abrogated.

Taleh was the capital of the Dervish state.

Governor De Vecchi’s first plan was to disarm the sultanates. But before the plan could be carried out there should be sufficient Italian troops in both sultanates. To make the enforcement of his plan more viable, he began to reconstitute the old Somali police corps, theCorpo Zaptié, as a colonial force.

In preparation for the plan of invasion of the sultanates, the Alula Commissioner, E. Coronaro received orders in April 1924 to carry out a reconnaissance on the territories targeted for invasion. In spite of the forty-year Italian relationship with the sultanates, Italy did not have adequate knowledge of the geography. During this time, the Stefanini-Puccioni geological survey was scheduled to take place, so it was a good opportunity for the expedition of Coronaro to join with this.

Coronaro’s survey concluded that the Ismaan Sultanate (Majeerteen) depended on sea traffic, therefore, if this were blocked any resistance which could be mounted came after the invasion of the sultanate would be minimal. As the first stage of the invasion plan Governor De Vecchi ordered the two Sultanates to disarm. The reaction of both sultanates was to object, as they felt the policy was in breach of the protectorate agreements. The pressure engendered by the new development forced the two rival sultanates to settle their differences over possession of Nugaal, and form a united front against their common enemy.

Yusuf Ali Kenadid, a prominent Somali anti-imperialist leader and the founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo.

The Sultanate of Hobyo was different from that of the Majeerteen in terms of its geography and the pattern of the territory. It was founded by Yusuf Ali Kenadid in the middle of the 19th century in central Somalia. Its jurisdiction stretched from Ceeldheer (El Dher) through toDhusamareb in the south-west, from Galladi to Galkayo in the west, from Jariban to Garaad in the north-east, and the Indian Ocean in the east.

By 1 October, De Vecchi’s plan was to go into action. The operation to invade Hobyo started in October 1925. Columns of the new Zaptié began to move towards the sultanate. Hobyo, Ceelbuur (El Buur), Galkayo, and the territory between were completely overrun within a month. Hobyo was transformed from a sultanate into an administrative region. Sultan Yusuf Ali surrendered. Nevertheless, soon suspicions were aroused as Trivulzio, the Hobyo commissioner, reported movement of armed men towards the borders of the sultanate before the takeover and after. Before the Italians could concentrate on the Majeerteen, they were diverted by new setbacks. On 9 November, the Italian fear was realized when a mutiny, led by one of the military chiefs of Sultan Ali Yusuf, Omar Samatar, recaptured El Buur. Soon the rebellion expanded to the local population. The region went into revolt as El-Dheere also came under the control of Omar Samatar. The Italian forces tried to recapture El Buur but they were repulsed. On 15 November the Italians retreated to Bud Bud and on the way they were ambushed and suffered heavy casualties.

While a third attempt was in the last stages of preparation, the operation commander, Lieutenant-Colonel Splendorelli, was ambushed between Bud Bud and Buula Barde. He and some of his staff were killed. As a consequence of the death of the commander of the operations and the effect of two failed operations intended to overcome the El Buur mutiny, the spirit of Italian troops began to wane. The Governor took the situation seriously, and to prevent any more failure he requested two battalions from Eritrea to reinforce his troops, and assumed lead of the operations. Meanwhile, the rebellion was gaining sympathy across the country, and as far afield as Western Somalia.

Somali soldiers board a British naval batilla.

The fascist government was surprised by the setback in Hobyo. The whole policy of conquest was collapsing under its nose. The El-Buur episode drastically changed the strategy of Italy as it revived memories of the Adwa fiasco when Italy had been defeated by Abyssinia. Furthermore, in the Colonial Ministry in Rome, senior officials distrusted the Governor’s ability to deal with the matter. Rome instructed De Vecchi that he was to receive the reinforcement from Eritrea, but that the commander of the two battalions was to temporarily assume the military command of the operations and De Vecchi was to stay in Mogadishu and confine himself to other colonial matters. In the case of any military development, the military commander was to report directly to the Chief of Staff in Rome.

While the situation remained perplexing, De Vecchi moved the deposed sultan to Mogadishu. Fascist Italy was poised to re-conquer the sultanate by whatever means. To maneuver the situation within Hobyo, they even contemplated the idea of reinstating Ali Yusuf. However, the idea was dropped after they became pessimistic about the results.

To undermine the resistance, however, and before the Eritrean reinforcement could arrive, De Vecchi began to instill distrust among the local people by buying the loyalty of some of them. In fact, these tactics had better results than had the military campaign, and the resistance began gradually to wear down. Given the anarchy which would follow, the new policy was a success.

On the military front, on 26 December 1925 Italian troops finally overran El Buur, and the forces of Omar Samatar were compelled to retreat to Western Somaliland.

By neutralising Hobyo, the fascists could concentrate on the Majeerteen. In early October 1924, E. Coronaro, the new Alula commissioner, presented Boqor (king) Osman Mahamuud with an ultimatum to disarm and surrender. Meanwhile, Italian troops began to pour into the sultanate in anticipation of this operation. While landing at Haafuun and Alula, the sultanate’s troops opened fire on them. Fierce fighting ensued and to avoid escalating the conflict and to press the fascist government to revoke their policy, Boqor Osman tried to open a dialogue. However, he failed, and again fighting broke out between the two parties. Following this disturbance, on 7 October the Governor instructed Coronaro to order the Sultan to surrender; to intimidate the people he ordered the seizure of all merchant boats in the Alula area. At Hafun, Arimondi bombarded and destroyed all the boats in the area.

Downtown Mogadishu in 1936. Arba Rucun mosque to the centre right.

On 13 October, Coronaro was to meet Boqor Osman at Baargaal to press for his surrender. Under siege already, Boqor Osman was playing for time. However, on 23 October, Boqor Osman sent an angry response to the Governor defying his order. Following this a full-scale attack was ordered in November. Baargaal was bombarded and destroyed to the ground. This region was ethnically compact, and was out of range of direct action by the fascist government of Muqdisho. The attempt of the colonizers to suppress the region erupted into explosive confrontation. The Italians were meeting fierce resistance on many fronts. In December 1925, led by the charismatic leaderHersi Boqor, son of Boqor Osman, the sultanate forces drove the Italians out of Hurdia and Hafun, two strategic coastal towns. Another contingent attacked and destroyed an Italian communications centre at Cape Guardafui, at the tip of the Horn. In retaliation the Bernicaand other warships were called on to bombard all main coastal towns of the Majeerteen. After a violent confrontation Italian forces captured Eyl (Eil), which until then had remained in the hands of Hersi Boqor. In response to the unyielding situation, Italy called for reinforcements from their other colonies, notably Eritrea. With their arrival at the closing of 1926, the Italians began to move into the interior where they had not been able to venture since their first seizure of the coastal towns. Their attempt to capture Dharoor Valley was resisted, and ended in failure.

De Vecchi had to reassess his plans as he was being humiliated on many fronts. After one year of exerting full force he could not yet manage to gain a result over the sultanate. In spite of the fact that the Italian navy sealed the sultanate’s main coastal entrance, they could not succeed in stopping them from receiving arms and ammunition through it. It was only early 1927 when they finally succeeded in shutting the northern coast of the sultanate, thus cutting arms and ammunition supplies for the Majeerteen. By this time, the balance had tilted to the Italians’ side, and in January 1927 they began to attack with a massive force, capturing Iskushuban, at the heart of the Majeerteen. Hersi Boqor unsuccessfully attacked and challenged the Italians at Iskushuban. To demoralise the resistance, ships were ordered to target and bombard the sultanate’s coastal towns and villages. In the interior the Italian troops confiscated livestock. By the end of the 1927, the Italians had nearly taken control of the sultanate. Hersi Boqor and his troops retreated to Ethiopia in order to rebuild their forces, but were unable to retake their territories, effectively ending the Campaign of the Sultanates.

World War II[edit]

On 9 May 1936, Mussolini proclaimed the creation of the Italian Empire, calling it the Africa Orientale Italiana (A.O.I.) and formed byEthiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. The Italians made many new investments in infrastructure in the region, such as the Strada Imperiale (“imperial road”) between Addis Ababa and Mogadishu.

Over the course of Italian Somaliand’s existence, many Somali troops fought in the so-called Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali. The soldiers were enrolled as Dubats, Zaptié and Bande irregolari. During World War II, these troops were regarded as a wing of the Italian Army’s Infantry Division, as was the case in Libya and Eritrea. The Zaptié provided a ceremonial escort for the Italian Viceroy (Governor) as well as the territorial police. There were already more than one thousand such soldiers in 1922. In 1941, in Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia, 2,186 Zaptié plus an additional 500 recruits under training officially constituted a part of the Carabinieri. They were organised into a battalion commanded by Major Alfredo Serranti that defended Culqualber (Ethiopia) for three months until this military unit was destroyed by the Allies. After heavy fighting, the Somali troops and the Italian Carabinieri received full military honors from the British.[59]

In the first half of 1940, there were 22,000 Italians living in Somalia and the colony was one of the most developed in East Africa in terms of the standard of living of the colonists and of the Somalis, mainly in the urban areas. More than 10,000 Italians were living in Mogadishu, the administrative capital of the Africa Orientale Italiana, and new buildings were erected in the Italian architectural tradition. By 1940, the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi (Jowhar) had a population of 12,000 people, of whom nearly 3,000 were Italian Somalians, and enjoyed a notable level of development with a small manufacturing area with agricultural industries (sugar mills, etc.).[60]

In the second half of 1940, Italian troops invaded British Somaliland[61] and ejected the British. The Italians also occupied parts of the British East Africa Protectorate bordering Jubaland around the towns of Moyale and Buna.[62]


Flag of the Somali Youth League(SYL), the nation’s first political party.

During World War II, Britain regained control of British Somaliland and conquered Italian Somaliland, administering both militarily asprotectorates. In November 1949, during the Potsdam Conference, the United Nations granted Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland, but only under close supervision and on the condition—first proposed by the Somali Youth League (SYL) and other nascent Somalian political organizations, such as Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (HDMS) and the Somali National League (SNL)—that Somalia achieve independence within ten years.[63][64] British Somaliland remained a protectorate of Britain until 1960.[65]

To the extent that Italy held the territory by UN mandate, the trusteeship provisions gave the Somalis the opportunity to gain experience in political education and self-government. These were advantages that British Somaliland, which was to be incorporated into the new Somali state, did not have. Although in the 1950s British colonial officials attempted, through various administrative development efforts, to make up for past neglect, the protectorate stagnated. The disparity between the two territories in economic development and political experience would cause serious difficulties when it came time to integrate the two parts.[66] Meanwhile, in 1948, under pressure from theirWorld War II allies and to the dismay of the Somalis,[67] the British “returned” the Haud (an important Somali grazing area that was presumably ‘protected’ by British treaties with the Somalis in 1884 and 1886) and the Ogaden to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in 1897 in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in exchange for his help against possible advances by the French.[68] Britain included the proviso that the Somali nomads would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over them.[63] This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in 1956 to buy back the Somali lands it had turned over.[63] Britain also granted administration of the almost exclusively Somali-inhabited[69] Northern Frontier District (NFD) to Kenyan nationalists despite an informal plebiscite demonstrating the overwhelming desire of the region’s population to join the newly formed Somali Republic.[70]

An avenue in downtown Mogadishuin 1963.

A referendum was held in neighboring Djibouti (then known as French Somaliland) in 1958, on the eve of Somalia’s independence in 1960, to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans.[71] There was also allegations of widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls.[72] The majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later.[71] Djibouti finally gained its independence from France in 1977, and Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a Somali who had campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, eventually wound up as Djibouti’s first president (1977–1991).[71]

British Somaliland became independent on 26 June 1960 as the State of Somaliland, and the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) followed suit five days later.[73] On 1 July 1960, the two territories united to form the Somali Republic, albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain.[74][75] A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa and other members of the trusteeship and protectorate governments, with Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf as President of the Somali National Assembly, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President, andAbdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister (later to become President from 1967–1969). On 20 July 1961 and through a popular referendum, the people of Somalia ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960.[76] In 1967, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egalbecame Prime Minister, a position to which he was appointed by Shermarke. Egal would later become the President of the autonomousSomaliland region in northwestern Somalia.

On 15 October 1969, while paying a visit to the northern town of Las Anod, Somalia’s then President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was shot dead by one of his own bodyguards. His assassination was quickly followed by a military coup d’état on 21 October 1969 (the day after his funeral), in which the Somali Army seized power without encountering armed opposition — essentially a bloodless takeover. The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army.[77]

Somali Democratic Republic[edit]

Supreme Revolutionary Council[edit]

Lieutenant Colonel Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, the “Father of the Revolution” that succeeded Somalia’s civilian administration.

Alongside Barre, the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) that assumed power after President Sharmarke’s assassination was led by Lieutenant ColonelSalaad Gabeyre Kediye and Chief of Police Jama Korshel. Kediye officially held the title of “Father of the Revolution,” and Barre shortly afterwards became the head of the SRC.[78] The SRC subsequently renamed the country the Somali Democratic Republic,[79][80] dissolved the parliament and the Supreme Court, and suspended the constitution.[81]

The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programs and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate. In addition to a nationalization program of industry and land, the new regime’s foreign policy placed an emphasis on Somalia’s traditional and religious links with the Arab world, eventually joining the Arab League (AL) in 1974.[82] That same year, Barre also served as chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the predecessor of the African Union (AU).[83]

In July 1976, Barre’s SRC disbanded itself and established in its place the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP), a one-party government based onscientific socialism and Islamic tenets. The SRSP was an attempt to reconcile the official state ideology with the official state religion by adapting Marxist precepts to local circumstances. Emphasis was placed on the Muslim principles of social progress, equality and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism and its own accent on self-sufficiency, public participation and popular control, as well as direct ownership of the means of production. While the SRSP encouraged private investment on a limited scale, the administration’s overall direction was essentially communist.[81]

Ogaden War[edit]

Main article: Ogaden War

Poster showing theOgaden as part ofGreater Somalia.

In July 1977, the Ogaden War broke out after Barre’s government sought to incorporate the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia. In the first week of the conflict, Somali armed forces seized the southern and central parts of the Ogaden. The units in the Godey Front were led by Colonel Abdullahi Ahmed Irro.[84] For most of the war, the Somali army scored continuous victories on the Ethiopian army, following it as far as Sidamo. By September 1977, Somalia controlled 90% of the Ogaden and captured strategic cities such as Jijiga and put heavy pressure on Dire Dawa, threatening the train route from the latter city to Djibouti. After the siege of Harar, a massive unprecedented Soviet intervention consisting of 20,000 Cuban forces and several thousand Soviet experts came to the aid of Ethiopia’s communist Derg regime. By 1978, the Somali troops were ultimately pushed out of the Ogaden. This shift in support by the Soviet Union motivated the Barre government to seek allies elsewhere. It eventually settled on the Soviets’ Cold War arch-rival, the United States, which had been courting the Somali government for some time. All in all, Somalia’s initial friendship with the Soviet Union and later partnership with the United States enabled it to build the largest army in Africa.[85]


Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, Chairman of theSupreme Revolutionary Council.

A new constitution was promulgated in 1979 under which elections for a People’s Assembly were held. However, Barre’s Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party politburo continued to rule.[80] In October 1980, the SRSP was disbanded, and the Supreme Revolutionary Council was re-established in its place.[81]

In May 1986, President Barre suffered serious injuries in a life-threatening automobile accident near Mogadishu, when the car that was transporting him smashed into the back of a bus during a heavy rainstorm.[86] He was treated in a hospital in Saudi Arabia for head injuries, broken ribs and shock over a period of a month.[87][88] Lieutenant General Mohamed Ali Samatar, then Vice President, subsequently served as de facto head of state for the next several months. Although Barre managed to recover enough to present himself as the sole presidential candidate for re-election over a term of seven years on 23 December 1986, his poor health and advanced age led to speculation about who would succeed him in power. Possible contenders included his son-in-law General Ahmed Suleiman Abdille, who was at the time the Minister of the Interior, in addition to Barre’s Vice President Lt. Gen. Samatar.[86][87]

By that time, Barre’s government had become increasingly unpopular. Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship. The regime was weakened further in the 1980s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia’s strategic importance was diminished. The government became increasingly totalitarian, and resistance movements, encouraged by Ethiopia, sprang up across the country, eventually leading to the Somali Civil War. Among the militia groups were the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF), United Somali Congress (USC),Somali National Movement (SNM) and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), together with the non-violent political oppositions of the Somali Democratic Movement (SDM), the Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) and the Somali Manifesto Group (SMG).

Somali Civil War[edit]

Main article: Somali Civil War

US Army helicopter shortly beforeBattle of Mogadishu in 1993.

With the political situation deteriorating, Barre’s long-standing government in 1991 eventually collapsed under the pressure. The national army disbanded shortly afterwards.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 was unanimously passed on 3 December 1992, which approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States. Forming the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), the force was tasked with assuring security until humanitarian efforts aimed at stabilizing the situation were transferred to the UN. Landing in 1993, the UN peacekeeping coalition started the two-year United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) primarily in the south to provide humanitarian relief.

Some militias that had seized power after the Barre regime’s ouster interpreted the UN troops’ presence as a threat to their hegemony. Consequently, several gun battles took place in Mogadishu between local gunmen and peacekeepers. Among these was the Battle of Mogadishu, an unsuccessful attempt by US troops to apprehend faction leader Mohamed Farah Aidid. The UN soldiers eventually withdrew altogether from the country on 3 March 1995, having incurred more significant casualties.


Following the outbreak of the civil war and the ensuing collapse of the central government, Somalia’s residents reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional or Islamic law, with a provision for appeal of all sentences. The legal structure in Somalia is thus divided along three lines: civil law, religious law and customary law.[89]

Civil law[edit]

While Somalia’s formal judicial system was largely destroyed after the fall of the Siad Barre regime, it was later gradually rebuilt and administered under different regional governments, such as the autonomous Puntland and Somaliland macro-regions. In the case of the later Transitional Federal Government, a new interim judicial structure was formed through various international conferences.

Despite some significant political differences between them, all of these administrations share similar legal structures, much of which are predicated on the judicial systems of previous Somali administrations. These similarities in civil law include: a) a charter which affirms the primacy of Muslim shari’a or religious law, although in practice shari’a is applied mainly to matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, and civil issues. The charter guarantees respect for universal standards of human rights to all subjects of the law. It also assures the independence of the judiciary, which in turn is protected by a judicial committee; b) a three-tier judicial system including a supreme court, a court of appeals, and courts of first instance (either divided between district and regional courts, or a single court per region); and c) the laws of the civilian government which were in effect prior to the military coup d’état that saw the Barre regime into power remain in force until the laws are amended.[90]


Islamic shari’a has traditionally played a significant part in Somali society. In theory, it has served as the basis for all national legislation in every Somali constitution. In practice, however, it only applied to common civil cases such as marriage, divorce, inheritance and family matters. This changed after the start of the civil war, when a number of new shari’a courts began to spring up in many different cities and towns across the country. These new shari’a courts serve three functions; namely, to pass rulings in both criminal and civil cases, to organize a militia capable of arresting criminals, and to keep convicted prisoners incarcerated.[90]

The shari’a courts, though structured along simple lines, feature a conventional hierarchy of a chairman, vice-chairman and four judges. A police force that reports to the court enforces the judges’ rulings, but also helps settle community disputes and apprehend suspected criminals. In addition, the courts manage detention centers where criminals are kept. An independent finance committee is also assigned the task of collecting and managing tax revenue levied on regional merchants by the local authorities.[90]


Main article: Xeer

Somalis have for centuries practiced a form of customary law, which they call Xeer. Xeer is a polycentric legal system where there is no monopolistic institution or agent that determines what the law should be or how it should be interpreted.

The Xeer legal system is assumed to have developed exclusively in the Horn of Africa since approximately the 7th century. There is no evidence that it developed elsewhere or was greatly influenced by any foreign legal system. Its legal terminology is practically devoid of loan words from foreign languages, suggesting that it is truly indigenous.[91]

The Xeer legal system also requires a certain amount of specialization of different functions within the legal framework. Thus, one can find odayaal (judges), xeerbogeyaal(jurists), guurtiyaal (detectives), garxajiyaal (attorneys), markhaatiyal (witnesses) and waranle (police officers) to enforce the law.[92]

Xeer is defined by a few fundamental tenets that are immutable and which closely approximate the principle of jus cogens in international law: These precepts include: a) payment of blood money (locally referred to as diya) for libel, theft, physical harm, rape and death, as well as supplying assistance to relatives; b) assuring good inter-clanrelations by treating women justly, negotiating with “peace emissaries” in good faith, and sparing the lives of socially protected groups “Birr Magaydo,” (e.g. children, women, the pious, poets, messengers, sheikhs, and guests); c) family obligations such as the payment of dowry, and sanctions for eloping; d) rules pertaining to the management of resources such as the use of pasture land, water, and other natural resources; e) providing financial support to married female relatives and newlyweds; f) donating livestock and other assets to the poor.[90]

Recent history[edit]

Main article: Politics of Somalia

Embassy of Somalia in Paris,France.

Transitional National Government[edit]

In 2000, Abdiqasim Salad Hassan was selected as the President of the nation’s new Transitional National Government (TNG), an interim administration formed to guide Somalia to its third permanent republican government.

On 10 October 2004, in a session held by the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP), former Puntland President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmedwas elected as President of the succeeding Transitional Federal Government (TFG), an interim federal administrative body that he had helped establish earlier in the year.[93] He received 189 votes from the TFG Parliament, while the closest contender, erstwhile Somali ambassador to Washington Abdullahi Ahmed Addou, got 79 votes in the third round of voting. The then incumbent President of Somalia, Abdiqasim Salad Hassan, peacefully withdrew his candidature.[94][95] Ahmed was sworn in a few days later on 14 October 2004.[95]

Transitional Federal Institutions[edit]

The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was the internationally recognised government of Somalia until 20 August 2012, when its tenure officially ended.[96] It was established as one of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs) of government as defined in theTransitional Federal Charter (TFC) adopted in November 2004 by the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP).

The Transitional Federal Government officially comprised the executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the legislativebranch. The government was headed by the President of Somalia, to whom the cabinet reported through the Prime Minister. However, it was also used as a general term to refer to all three branches collectively.

Islamic Courts Union and Ethiopian intervention[edit]

In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an Islamist organization, assumed control of much of the southern part of the country and promptly imposed Shari’a law. The Transitional Federal Government sought to reestablish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops,African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule.[97]

On 8 January 2007, as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged, TFG President and founder Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, a former colonel in the Somali Army and decorated war hero, entered Mogadishu for the first time since being elected to office. The government then relocated to Villa Somalia in the capital from its interim location in Baidoa. This marked the first time since the fall of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 that the federal government controlled most of the country.[98]

Following this defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military’s presence in Somalia. Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. By January 2009, Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an under-equipped African Union peacekeeping force to assist the Transitional Federal Government’s troops.[99]

Due to a lack of funding and human resources, an arms embargo that made it difficult to re-establish a national security force, and general indifference on the part of the international community, President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country. Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region’s government. This left little revenue for Puntland’s own security forces and civil service employees, leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks.[100][101]

On 29 December 2008, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia. In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country’s seventeen-year conflict as his government had mandated to do.[102] He also blamed the international community for its failure to support the government, and said that the speaker of parliament would succeed him in office per the Charter of the Transitional Federal Government.[103]

Coalition government[edit]

The battle flag of Al-Shabaab, an Islamist group waging war against the federal government.

Between May 31 and 9 June 2008, representatives of Somalia’s federal government and the moderate Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) group of Islamist rebels participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations Special Envoy to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah. The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation. Parliament was subsequently expanded to 550 seats to accommodate ARS members, which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, the former ARS chairman, to office. President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, as the nation’s new Prime Minister.[89]

With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February 2009 to assume full control of the southern half of the country. To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama’a, a moderate Sufi militia.[104] Furthermore, Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam, the two main Islamist groups in opposition, began to fight amongst themselves in mid-2009.[105]

As a truce, in March 2009, Somalia’s coalition government announced that it would re-implement Shari’a as the nation’s official judicial system.[106] However, conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country. Within months, the coalition government had gone from holding about 70% of south-central Somalia’s conflict zones, territory which it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration, to losing control of over 80% of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents.[98]

2010-12 government[edit]

On 14 October 2010, diplomat Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed (Farmajo) was appointed the new Prime Minister of Somalia. The former Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke resigned the month before following a protracted dispute with President Sharif over a proposed draft constitution.[107]

Foreign Minister of SomaliaMohamed Abdullahi Omaar in a meeting with UNDP AdministratorHelen Clark and other diplomats at the UN headquarters in New York.

Per the Transitional Federal Government‘s (TFG) Charter,[108] Prime Minister Mohamed named a new Cabinet on 12 November 2010,[109]which has been lauded by the international community.[110][111] As had been expected, the allotted ministerial positions were significantly reduced in numbers, with only 18 administrative posts unveiled versus the previous government’s bloated 39 portfolios.[109][112] Only two Ministers from the previous Cabinet were reappointed: Hussein Abdi Halane, the former Minister of Finance and a well-regarded figure in the international community, was put in charge of a consolidated Ministry of Finance and Treasury; and Dr. Mohamud Abdi Ibrahim was reassigned to the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.[113] Ahlu Sunna Waljama’a, a moderate Sufi group and an important military ally of the TFG, was also accorded the key Interior and Labour ministries.[112][113] The remaining ministerial positions were largely assigned to technocrats new to the Somali political arena.[114]

In its first 50 days in office, Prime Minister Mohamed’s new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers, and initiated the implementation of a full biometric register for the security forces within a window of four months. Additional members of the Independent Constitutional Commission were also appointed to engage Somali constitutional lawyers, religious scholars and experts in Somali culture over the nation’s upcoming new constitution, a key part of the government’s Transitional Federal Tasks. In addition, high level federal delegations were dispatched to defuse clan-related tensions in several regions. According to the prime minister of Somalia, to improve transparency, Cabinet ministers fully disclosed their assets and signed a code of ethics.[115]

An Anti-Corruption Commission with the power to carry out formal investigations and to review government decisions and protocols was also established so as to more closely monitor all activities by public officials. Furthermore, unnecessary trips abroad by members of government were prohibited, and all travel by ministers now require the Premier’s consent.[115][116] A budget outlining 2011’s federal expenditures was also put before and approved by members of parliament, with the payment of civil service employees prioritized. In addition, a full audit of government property and vehicles is being put into place. On the war front, the new government and its AMISOM allies also managed to secure control of 60% of Mogadishu, where 80% of the capital’s population now lives. According to the African Union and Prime Minister Mohamed, with increasing troop strength the pace of territorial gains is expected to greatly accelerate.[115][117]

On 19 June 2011, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed resigned from his position as Prime Minister of Somalia. Part of the controversial Kampala Accord’s conditions, the agreement would also see the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker and Deputies extended until August 2012, after which point new elections are to be organized.[118]Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Mohamed’s former Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, was later named permanent Prime Minister.[119]

Federal government[edit]

As part of the official “Roadmap for the End of Transition”, a political process which provided clear benchmarks leading toward the formation of permanent democratic institutions in Somalia, the Transitional Federal Government’s interim mandate ended on 20 August 2012.[120] The Federal Parliament of Somalia was concurrently inaugurated, ushering in the Federal Government of Somalia, the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war.[96]

On 10 September 2012, parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as the new President of Somalia.[121] President Mohamud later appointed Abdi Farah Shirdon as the new Prime Minister on 6 October 2012,[122] who was succeeded in office by Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmedon 21 December 2013.[123] On 17 December 2014, former Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke was reappointed Prime Minister.[124]



Muslim era[edit]

Modern era[edit]

  • 20 July 1887 : British Somaliland protectorate (in the north) subordinated to Aden to 1905.
  • 3 August 1889: Benadir Coast Italian Protectorate (in the northeast), (unoccupied until May 1893).
  • 1900: Mohammed Abdullah Hassan spearheads a religious war against foreigners and establishes the Dervish State.
  • 16 March 1905: Italian Somaliland colony (in the northeast, central and south).
  • July 1910: Italian Somaliland a crown colony
  • 1920: Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (called “the Mad Mullah” by the British) dies and the longest and bloodiest colonial resistance war in Africa ends.
  • 15 January 1935: Italian Somaliland part of Italian East Africa with Italian Eritrea (and from 1936 Ethiopia).
  • 1 June 1936: The Somalia Governorate is established as one of the six governorates of Italian East Africa.

World War II[edit]

  • 18 August 1940: Italian occupation of British Somaliland.
  • February 1941: British administration of Italian Somaliland.

Independence and Cold War[edit]

See also[edit]


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  37. Jump up^ p. 4 – The quest for an African Eldorado: Sofala, By Terry H. Elkiss
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  43. Jump up^ p. 90 – The Ethiopians: a history By Richard Pankhurst
  44. Jump up^ p. 222 – The Portuguese Pioneers By Edgar Prestage
  45. Jump up^ Journal of African History p. 50 by John Donnelly Fage and Roland Anthony Oliver
  46. Jump up^ Da Gama’s First Voyage p. 88
  47. Jump up^ East Africa and its Invaders p. 38
  48. Jump up^ Gujarat and the Trade of East Africa p. 35
  49. Jump up^ The return of Cosmopolitan Capital:Globalization, the State and War p. 22
  50. Jump up^ The Arabian Seas: The Indian Ocean World of the Seventeenth Century By R. J. Barendse
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  94. Jump up^ Somalia MPs elect new president
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  127. Jump up^ Moshe Y. Sachs, Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, (Worldmark Press: 1988), p. 290

Sideed ugu xamaalan kartaa Qatar?


Qatar waa wadan yar oo iminka dhismayo. Duruufta dhaqaale(adag) ee uu aduunka marayo wax raad ah kuma reebin oo waxay kamid tahay wadamada yar ee ka bad-baaday (Al-Xamdulillaahi). Taasi waxaa daliil u ah inaay maalgalin badan kusamaynayso wadama yurub iyo Asia.

Engineer wax dhiso, dhakhtar wax daweeyo, darawal gaari kaxeeyo- ilaa khadaamad intaba waa looga baahan yahay laakinse duruufo kala duwan oo ubaahan in la faah-faahiyo ayay kusuganyihiin!

Shaqooyinka professionalka ah sida engineerka dhismaha ama maamulka iyo maaraynta aad ayaa loo amaanay (mushaar ahaan) marka loo fiiriyo Europe iyo America sida ay qireen dad ka soo shaqeeyey meelo kala duwan oo aduunka ah!

Ugu yaraan, mushaar aan canshuur lahayn ayaad qaadanaysa, calaawaad(allowance) badana waad leedahay, 5ta salaadoodna waxaad kutukanaysa masjidka. Ha hilmaamin meel waliba oo inaay leedahay taxadi (callenge) loo baahanyahay in lagu xisaabtamo!

Dad sikale  wax uxisaabiyey ayaa jiro oo kuleh: Waxa kusoo galayo iyo waxa kaa baxayo ismalaha ayagoo milicsanayo noolasha qaaliga ee Qatar!

Shaqooyinka muruq-maalka ah waxa kuroon Europe iyo America marka lagahadlayo duruufta shaqada iyo lacagta intaba.  Wadamada Khaleejka, xoogsatadu waxay kusugantahay xaalad adag oo qolooyinka xuquuqul-insaanka kaqayliyeen!

Sideen kuhelaya shaqada igu haboon haddii aan ahay professional?

Dadka xirfadlayaasha ah iyo kuwa kashaqeeyo maamulka ee kasoo baxay jaamacadaha magaca leh, kana soo shaqeeyey shirkad magaca leh aad ayay ugu sahlan tahay haddii aanu Qadarka ka adeegin!

Shaqooyinka fiican sida ay ubadanyihiin waa online; waxayna gacanta ugu jiran dad reer galbeed(gaalo cad) ubadan.

Shirkadaha dadka shaqooyinka geeya (recruitment agencies) ayaa  mas’uul  ka ah kala shandhaynta CVyada(codsi shaqo raadin) ; intooda badana waxay kuyeelaan Europe,  America iyo  meelo kabaxsan Qatar.

Kuma oronkaro sicadaalad ah ayaa loo eegaya CVyada laakinse waxaad mooda inaay dhaanto nidaamka‘waastada(yaad taqaan)’ ee wadamada Carabta wax looga raadsan jirey waagii hore.

CV sifiican loo qoray oo aad onlineka udhigto shirkada (aad shaqada ka doonaysid) ayaa kaaga filan Safar dheer, kharash badan iyo fasax aad ka soo qaadatid shaqadaada. In dhawaydba Qatar waa lajoojiyey arji gacanta laga dhiibo!

Rag badan oo ka soo safray meelo fog-fog sida Australia ayaa loogu jawaabay  ‘nagala soo xariir websitekan iyo emailkan’. Haddii aad horey u aaminsanayd in Carabtu ‘waasto‘  iyo shuyuukh loo tago wax looga helo- arintaas waa kudaysay ee lasoco saaxib.

Haddii aad shaqada  sidaas kuheshid waa khayr oo wax aad kawal-washo majiraan. Waxaad kala saxiixanaysaan contract( heshiis) ay kuqoranyihiin waxkasta; haddii aad raali katahay waad saxiixaysa haddii kale waad diideysa. Wax waliba shirkada ayaa kuu dhamaynayso adigoo wadankaada jooga..

Xusuus: Dibida in lagaa keeno ayaa kafiican inaad gudaha shaqo kacodsatid waayo waxaad leedahay ticket meesha aad katimid.

Deegaanka  waxay ubadan tahay in lagu dajiyo meelo gaar ah oo ka duwan Qatar inteeda kale oo loogu talo galay dadka muhiimka ah ee ka shaqeeya meelaha muhiimka ah. .

Haddii ay kaa tahay intay laabtu bukilahayd….

oo ay ku dhaafin waydo inaad soo safartid fadlan lasoco maalmaha laqabto“Qatar Career Fair”. Waa macrad sanadkii mar laqabto oo dhamaan shirkadaha waa-wayn oo dhan ayaa soo bandhigo shaqooyinka kabanaan. Waa jaanis fiican ee wixii intaas ka dheer kala xariir .

Baraarujin: shaqooyinka qaarkood iska ilaali oo waxaa lagu sameeya waxloo yaqaan ‘ Qatarisation’تقطير, yacni mar Allah iyo marka lahelo Qatari qabankaro howshaada ayaa lagaa saaraya meesha. Had iyo jeer waxaad xooga saarta shaqooyinka qatariga soo hawaysankarin sida macalin English iyo wixii lamidka ah.

Ogsoonow inaad latartamayso- marka aad shaqo online kudalbanaysid- dadyowga aduunka oo dhan; waa inaad umuuqata professional ah marka aad email direysid, habka CVgaada uqoran yahay iyo haddii interview lagaaga qaado teleefoonka intaba.

Habkan (online)  ma’aha wax sidaas usii dhib badan oo waxa nala jooga shabaab Somaliyeed oo sidaas  shaqada kuheley. Gaalada halkaan kashaqayso 80% waxay kuymaadaan online.

Shirkada badan waxaa lagaleeyahay wadama Galbeedka (Europe, North America iyo Australia) oo lagayaabo inaad baasaborkooda sidatid. Wadamada Norway, Canada, America, Denmark, UK iyo kuwa badan oo kale ayaa kuleh shirkado batroolka kashaqeeya. Shirkadahaas emailada iyo webkoodaba waxaad kala socondoonta maqaalka usbuuca soo socdo inshallah.

Muruq-maalayaasha (sideyda oo kale)

Dadka kashaqeeya shaqooyinka xooga kudhisan- xaaladooda waxan ukala qaybinaynaa labo marka laga  eego nidaamka shaqo-siinta, mishaarka iyo sida ay ku soo galaan wadankan.

A. Dad xirfadlayaal hoose oo kashaqeeya hoteelada, korontada, dhismayaasha, warshadaha, garashyada iyo wixii lamid ah wadamadooda ayaa toos looga keena. Waana heshiis dhex maray Qatar iyo wadamaas. Dad lasoo tabobaray, wadamadoodana lagu soo imtixaanay, shaqada horey ugu soo shaqeeyey!

Somali ahaan dadkaas kuma jirno oo dowlad namatasha majirto (waana lawada ogsoon yahay meeshii ay kudanbaysay ayadoon cid gaar ah lagu eedeneyn); aqoona uma lihin inaan kashaqayno xirfadaha dadkan lagu keenayo.

Kooxdan inkastoo ay xirfad leeyihiin hadana dhaqaale ahaan magaarayaan kuwa professionalka ah ; ayadoo ay sidaas tahay hadana qof kasta waa kuqanacsanyahay waxa uu qaato marka loo eego wadankiisa. Taas micnaheedu ma’ahan inuu dhaqaaluhu kufilanyahay ee heshiiska lala soo galay ayaa sidaas ah.

B. Qolada iskood usoo dacabirtay, waana mida aan qormadan ugu talo galnay dhib badan ayaa kataagan; Soomaali ahaana kuwaas ayaan ubadanahay sababaha aan kor kusoo sheegney  iyo kuwa kalaba.

Xaalad adag ayay kooxdan kusuganyihiin; ma oronkaro waxay lamid yihiin kuwa badaha isku qaada laakinse waa mid u baahan in laysdul istaago! Ayadoo faahfaahsan waxaad kaga bogan doonta qoraaladan soo socdo inshallah markaas ayaad xukumi doonta inaay kamidyihiin ‘xamaaliin soo shaqo tagay ama  dad isa soo miidaamiyey’.

Haddii aad muruq-maale tahay sideed ku imaankarta Qatar?

Waxaad ku imaankarta adigoo visa laguu soo diro laakinse su’aashu waxay tahay ‘sidee loo helikaraa visa sax ah? Waa visa noocee ah?

Waxyaabaha soo kordhay sanadahan dambe oo aan horey looga aqoon Qatar waxaa  kamdi ah ‘visa’suuq-madow lagu kala iibsanayo.Waxaa abuurmay  shirkado badan oo aan shaqooyin hayn oo ay  dhalanyaro  leeyihiin.

Shirkadahaas waxay heshiis lagalen dad ajaanib ah oo Qatar dagan. Shirkadu dowlada ayay visaha kasoo qaadaysa ayadoo ku andacoonayso inay shaqaale ubaahan tahay. Kadibna suuqa ayaa lagu kala iibsadaa oo dad aan shaqo loo hayn ayaa dalka lagu soo dal-dalaa.

Hadaba waa inaad iibsataa visaha noocaas ah ee lasoco. Dhibaatooyinka kadhasha (Visaha suuqa madow) hoos ayaan ku faahfaahindoona  haddii Allah yirahdo ee ha degdegin. Waana arinta igu dhalisay inaan diyaariyo maqaaladan taxanaha ah kadib markii aan arkay dad badan kusoo hunboobay visaha sidaan lagu helo!

Sideen ku aamini karaa dadkaas? Tolow amay idhacaan? Taas adiga ayaan kuu daynaya laakinse waxan kugu baraarujinlahaa ‘visaha’ oo aad gacanta kudhigto micnaheedu ma’aha inaad kagudubtaymarxaladii lagu dhicilahaa iyo lugooyadii ee fadlan lasoco maqaalka inta kahartay!

Jeebkaada eeg!

Fadlan soo qaado kalkulaytar oo ila soco ilaa aan kuu xisaabiyo kharashka kugu baxayo- imaanshahaada ilaa daganaashuhu kuu dhamaystirmayo ka hor inta aadan shaqo helin!

$2000-3000 ayaa lagu kala iibsada ‘visaha’ suuqa madow oo ay ku qorantahay 5sano oo daganaasho ah. Haddi ladoono lacagtaas waa lagugu kordhinkaraa oo waxay kuxirantahay inta qof ee idiin-dhaxayso adiga iyo shirkada.

Waxaadse ogaataa in dowlada visahan looga soo qaaday lacag la’aan. Waxkasta oo lagaa qaaday waxa kala qaybsana shirkada iyo mukhalaska.

Imtixaanka runta ah hadda ayuu kuu bilaamaya ee dhagaha fur. Marka aad soo gashid dalk ‘visaha‘  waa in loo badalaa  iqaamad (residence), howlo badan ayaa  kahoreeya.  Waxaa lagaa rabaa  lacag kale, ugu yaraan $700-900  oo aan ahayn tii aad kusoo iibsatay visaha. Lacagtan dowlada in yar ayaa loo xaraynaya inta kala waa lacunaya.

Waxyaabaha kale ee dhicikaro waxaa kamid ah in lacagtaas($700-900) lakordhiyo lagaa cuno oo aan iqaamad lagugu dhufan! In shirkada lagaa qariyo marka aad halkan timaadid iyo howlo kale oo aan halkan lagu faahfaahinkarin oo akhlaaqda kabaxsan!

Haddii ay sidaas dhacdo ogow labo khiyaar umbaa kuu banaan : inaad iska soo laabatid  ama  lacag horleh aad bixisid haddii kale waxaa kugu bilaamaya qaraamo( ganaax)!

Intaas iigu dar lacagta baasaboorka aad soo qaadanaysid oo aan baasabor soomali iyo bug ah midna ahayn; iyo waxa kugu baxaya safarka aad ku raadsanaysid baasabor sax ah!

Tikidkaada iyo howlaha safarka oo dhan (hadba meesha aad ka imanaysid ilaa Qatar); cuntada,  jiifka iyo hotelkada inta aad shaqo kaheleysid (oo aan lagaranayn inta ay qaadanayso) ii xisaabi!.

Taksiga iyo transportiga qaaliga ee Qatar lacag uxisaabi. Haddii  ay daruuf kugu timaado oo ay noqoto in lagu celiyo- sida dhacdaba ticketka adigaa lagaa raba ee  kudar intii hore!

Reer iyo ciyaal haddii aad katimid – waana waxa meesh ku keenaye-waxaad ugu soo tagilahayd  ii xisaabi. Walaalkey qaali ahow imisa ayay kuu soo baxday? $————

Khibrada aan uleeyahay dadka dhoof-raadiska ah cid lacagtaan gacan kuhaysa oo diyaar u ah inaay kubixiso safar sidaan oo kale  waa yartahay laakinse waxaa badan inta  ku xisaabtamaysa jeebka qofkale!

Iminka oo aad haysid tuutalka lacagta kugu baxay, su’aashu waxay tahay ‘ma kanoqanaysa safarkan mise lacagta ayaad soo kordhisanaysa adigoo kuxisaabtamaya warbixintaan?’

Intaas waxaan kugu darilahaa- argagixisonimo igama aha- inaysan lacagtaan si sahlan kugu soo noqonayn balse aad ubaahandoontid lacag kale oo lagugu taageero! Waana ceeb in lagugu soo biilo Qatar adigoo waxaas oo kharash ah soo galay!

Mida kale, adigoo intaas oo qarash ah soo galay hadana joogitaankada  Qatar wuxu kuxiran yahay natiijada caafimadka (haddii lagaa helo cudurada laysku celiyo) iyo faraha dambi barista ee lagaa qaadaya inta aan iqaamada lagugu dhufan!

Lugooyadu intaas kuma eko!

Maalmahan waxa socota in shirkado badan oo kaganacsan jirey howlahaan al-baabada loo xirey ama loo diidey in loo cusboonaysiiyo sharciga kadib markii la arkay dadka ay kaganacsanayaan. Kadibna wixii ay kafeel ka ahayd waxaa lagu shubaa ibcaadka(tarxiilka).

Qatar waa wadan yar oo wixii qalad ah oo soo kordha islamarkiiba waa ladareemaya. Ma’aha sida Sacuudiga iyo Imaaraatka oo ay dadku kujoogaan siyaabo kala duwan- xaj, umra iyo marmarsiiyo ganacsi. Hal wado ayaa wadanka lagu soo galaa, laguna jooga – waa inaad shaqaynaysid!

Dhibaatooyinka waxa kamid ah inuu kafeelku kuu diido inaad kawareegtid xitaa marka ay kuu dhamaato mudada uu qaanuunka dhigayo! Ama warqadkasta oo aad ka codsatidba lacag kaa qaado- waa howlo sida badan lagu helo lacag la’aan!

Afeef: Qalad ha iga fahmin, waxaan oo mashaakil ah ma’ahan wax aan soo aruuriyey oo aan dadka ku argagixinayo ee waa sida uu xaalku yahay. Haddii aad ka biyo diidsantahay fadlan laxariir wixii qaraabo ama macrifo ah oo aad kuleedahay Qatar.

Isku soo duduubo waxaas oo dabin ah haddii aad kagudubtid waxaad kuguulaysatay oo kali ah ‘inaad dalka si sharci ah kujoogtid’. Tilaabana meel uma dhaqaajinkartid mudo hal sano ah sida qaanunka Qatar dhigo, xitaa haddii aad soo heshid meel aad kaxamaalatid.

Waa inoo usbuuca dambe iyo warbixin kale, wasalaamu Alaykum Warahmatullah Wabarakaatuhu.

Xigasho: http://somalitalk.com/tag/al-hasani/

Adam Abuzuhri Al-Hasani

Email: abuzuhri1@gmail.comgardheere1

Afeef: Aragtida maqaallada iyo faallooyinka waa kuwo u gaar ah qorayaasha ku saxiixan.

Sidee Loo abuuraa Ganacsi Guuleysta? “Qeybtii Labaad”

Waa qaybtii labaad ee barnaamijkii aynu ugu magacdaray sidee loo abuuraa ganacsi guulaysan kara.

Waxa aynu ku soo sheegnay qaybtii koowaad si loo abuuro ganacsi guulaysan kara in loo baahan yahay in uu jiro nidaam ama qorshe ay raacayso shirkaddu oo la yidhaa (business plan). Waxa aynu qaybtan labaad kusoo qaadan doonaa waxyaabaha kale ee u baahan in lagu qoro qorshaynta ganacsiga (business plan). Qorshaynta ganacsiga oo aynu kusoo qeexnay in uu yahay wadadii la mari lahaa si loo gaadho ujeedada shirkaddu leedahay. Shirkadd aan lahayn qorshe cad ama nidaam la raacayaa suurto gal ma aha in ay si fudud u guulaysato.

Halkan waxaynu ku soo gudbin doonaa qaybta labaad oo u baahan in lagu qoro marka la diyaarinaayo nidaaminta ganacsiga (business planning). Marka aynu dhamayno waxaynu samayn doonaa tusaale (sample) business plan si qof waliba u fahmo.

Fadlan qofkii aan akhrisan qaybtii hore waxa laga yaabaa in fahamka qabtani ay ku adkaato markaa ku noqo qaybtii hore isla websitekan.

Waxyaalaha u baahan in la ogaado inta aan shirkaddu badeecad ama adeeg soo saarin:

  • Waa maxay baahida dhabta ah ee hadda ka jirta suuqa aad higsanayso (current demand in the target market)? Waa in aad ogaataa in baahi ka jirto suuqa aad galayso, waayo macaamiishu waxa ay marka hore ku xidhnaayeen shirkaddo kale, markaa waa maxay sababta ay ugu baahan yihiin in ay shirkaddan cusub kusoo biiraan, dhinacyo badan ka fiiri baahida.
  • Waa maxay xajmiga saxda ah ee suuqa aad rabto in ay shirkaddan cusubi ka shaqayso (size of market)? Badanaa suuqyada dhaqaalaha badan laga helaa waa suuqyada dadkoodu ay aadka u badan yihiin (more populated). Markaa waa in aad ogaataa xajmiga suuqaagu inta uu noqon karo.
  • Boqolkiiba meeqa ayaad suuqa ku yeelan kartaa (tani waa muhiim haddii aad si dhab ah uga fakirayso in aad noqoto mid ku guulaytsa suuqa)?
  • Muxuu yahay isbedelka ku imaan kara suuqa aad ku fakirayso, intee in leeg ayuu suuqu isbedeli karaa isla markaa horumar intee leeg ayaad badeecada ama adeega  ku samayn kartaa?
  • Muxuu yahay koboca imaan karaa (potential growth)?
  • Maxay yihiin xanibaadaha kaa hor imaan kara markaad suuqa galayso (market entry barriers), maadaama aad shirkadd cusub tahay?. Tusaale ahaan waxyaalaha kaa hor imaan kara waxaa ka mid ah:
  • Kharashka daraasaadka suuq-gaynta oo bata (high marketing cost)
  • Kharash badan oo loo baahdo (high capital cost)
  • Kharashka tacab soo saarka oo aad u bata (high production cost)
  • Macaamiisha oo u baahan in ay ku bartaan (consumer acceptance and brand recognition)
  • Shirkadoo u baahata dad tababar iyo xir fad leh (training and skills)
  • Kharashka lagu raraayo oo sareeya (shipping costs)
  • Cashuuraadka (tariff)
  • Sharciyada dawladda (legal authority)
  • Iyo dabcan sidii aad uga gudbi lahayd xanibaadaha kaa hor yimaada
  • Side ayay waxyaalahan soo socdaa u saamayn karaan shirkadda cusub helida jawaabahoodu waxa ay kaa caawinaysaa in aad dhinac walba ka eegto ganacsigan cusub ee aad furaysaa si aad u ogaato waxyaalaha kugu soo fool leh:
  • Haddii isbedel ku yimaado ganacsiga (change in the business).
  • Haddii is bedel ku yimaado qalabka farsamada (change in technology)
  • Haddii is bedel ku yimado sharciyada dawlada (change in government regulations)
  • Hadii isbedel ku yimaado xaga dhaqaalaha (change in the economy)

Badeecada (products):

Qaybtan waxaa laga rabaa shirkaddu in ay si cad u sharaxdo badeecadaha iyo adeegyada ay samaynayso. Weliba waa in shirkaddu qeexdaa ayadoo toos ula hadlaysa macmiisha.

Waxaad taxdaa dhamaan alaabta aad rabto in aad iibiso oo dhan.

Mid walbana si cad u sheeg faaiidada uu leeyahay iyo weliba waxyaalaha dheeriga uu layahay. (describe the most important features and benefits).

Waana in aad sheegtaa haddii lagaa iibsado waxyaalaha aad qofka aad siinayso, tusaale ahaan in aad alaabta halkuu doonayo aad u geyso (delivery), in aad siiso damaanad (warranty), taakulayn dheeri ah (support) iyo in lacagtisii loo celin karo haddii loo baahdo (refund policy).

Macaamiisha (customers):

Waa in shirkaddu si buuxda u aqoonsataa macaamiisha ay beegsanyso (target customers). Dabeecadahooda (characteristics), iyo weliba halka ay degan yihiin.

Haddii shirkaddu ay macaamiisheedu aanay ahayn koox gaar ah, waxaa lama huran ah in aad sheegto kooxda ugu sii muhiimsan haddii ay tahay da’da (age), lab ama dhedig (gender), meesha uu degan yahay (location), awoodiisa dhaqaale (income level), bulshada halka uu kaga jiro iyo shaqadiisa (social class and occupation), waxbarashadiisa (education) iyo wixii kale ee shirkaddu u baahataba.

Loollanka (competition):

Shirkaddu waa in ay halkan ku qeexdaa shirkadaha haya badeecadaha ama adeegayada ay hayso oo kale.

Waa in halkan lagu taxaa shirkadaha kula loolami kara magacyadooda iyo ciwaankooda:

Waa in shirkaddu is waydiisaa in shirkadaha kale ay si buuxda ula tartami karaan iyo in kale mise qaybo gaar ah ayuunbay kala tartami karaan; tusaale ahaan ma badeeco ama adeeg gaar ah ayuunbay kula tartami karaan, mise dhinac walba sida macaamiisha, deegaanka iwm.

Waa in ay shirkadda u cadahay tartamayaasha tooska ah iyo kuwa aan tooska ahanba (direct and indirect competitors).

Side bay badeecadaadu ama adeegaagu ula tartami karaa shirkadaha kale marka aad is bar bar dhigto.

Samee shax ay ku cad yihiin meelaha ay shirkaddadu ku

  • Xoogan tahay (strength) iyo meelaha ay ku liidato (weakness).
  • Sixirka badeecada ama adeega (pricing) barbar dhig kuwa shirkadaha kale.
  • Tayada wax soo saarka (quality) tayada badeecdaha shirkaddaha kale ma ka fiican yihiin kuwa shirkaddada.
  • Reliability (la isku halayn karo) barbar dhig kuwa shirkaddaha kale, isku halayn intee leeg ayay leeyihiin.
  • Reputation (Sumcadda) intee leeg ayay shirkaddahani leeyihiin, barbardhig shirkaddada
  • Visual aspect (Muuqaalka) waa sidee muuqaalka shirkadaha kale, barbardhig shirkaddada
  • Location (Goobta) goobaha ay ku yaalaan shirkaddaha kale ma ka fiican yihiin meesha ay shirkaddadu ku taalo. barbardhig shirkaddada
  • Advertising (xayaysiinta) shirkaddaha kale ma kaa xayaysiin fiican yihiin, barbardhig shirkaddada

Qor qoraal kooban oo aad ku sharaxayso shirkadaha kula loollamaya faaiidooyinkooda (advantages) ay leeyihiin iyo weliba faaiido-darada ay leeyihiin (disadvantages).

Niche (abbaarid):

Hadda waxaad si buuxda u ogaatay xaalada shirkaddada, badeecaddada, macaamiishada, iyo weliba cidda kula loollamaysa, waa in aad fahamtaa sawirka saxda ah ee shirakaddadu meesha ay adduunka ka galayso.

Fadlan qoraal kooban ku qeex meesha aad wax ka abbaarayso, iyo weliba dhinaca gaarka ah ee aad suuqa ka galayso.

Strategy (xeelad):

Hada muuji xeeladdaada suuq-gayn (marketing strategy) adigoo si gaar ah u raacaya warbixinihii aad soo uruursatay.

Promotion (dhiirigelin):

iminka sidee ayaad macaamiisha ku gaadhsiinaysaa farriintaada?

Advertising (xayaysiin): warbaahintee ayaad isticmaalaysaa? Sababtu maxay tahay aad u isticmaalaysaa?, meeqa goor ayaad isticmaalaysaa?

Ma isku dayday in aad hesho meelaha ugu qiimaha jaban ee aad ka heli karto qiimo wax ka dhima dhaqaalihii aad ugu talo gashay in aad fariinta ku gaadhsiiso dadka.

Sheeg haddii ay jiraan waddooyin kale oo aad farriintaada ku gudbin kartid tusaale ahaan, in aad samayso bandhig ganacsi (trade fair), catalogue (diiwaan haye), in aad afka ku gaadhsiiso dadka (word of mouth) ama cid kale oo xirafd u leh waxani in ay kuu gudbiyaan farriintaada.

Sawir noocee ah ayaad rabtaa in aad u muuqato? Sidee rabtaa in aad macaamiishaada ula muuqato?

Marka laga yimaado xayaysiinta warbaahinta maxaa kale ee aad ku taageeraysaa muuqaalka shirkadda tusaale ahaan samaynta astaanta shirkadda (logo design), brochures (buugaag yayyar oo xayaysiineed, signage (calaamado ama summado),  iyo muuqaalka gudaha shirkadda haddiiba ay kusoo booqdaan macaamiishu.

Ma leedahay nidaam aad macaamiishada kula xidhiidho amaba aad marwalba uga war hayso?

Promotional Budget (miisaaniyadda xayaysiinta):

Dhaqaale intee leeg ayaad ugu talo gashay waxyaalaha aynu kor kusoo xusnay?

Inta aanad bilaabin (lacagtani waxa ay galaysaa miisaaniyada lagu bilaabayo)(start up budget.)

Marka ay shirkaddu socoto (lacagatani waxa ay galaysaa miisaaniyada lacagta lagu shaqaynaayo) (operating plan budget.)

Pricing (sixir goyn):

Halkan waxaad ku faah faahisaa sida aad u rabto in aad u dejiso qiimaha sixirka badeecada ama adeega (price setting.), inta badan shirkaddaha yaryar uma fiicna in ay sixirka ugu hooseeya ay wax ku iibiyaan ay tahay arinta kelya ee saxda ah. Qiimaha hooseeyaa waxa uu kaa yaray nayaa faa’iidadii aad heli lahayd (profit margin.)

Macaamiisha waxa suurto gal ah in aanay kaba fekirin sixirka hooseeya ee aad adigu ka fakirayso. Waxaana dhici karta in shirkado waaweyni ay suuqa kugu jebiyaan kedibna aad la tartami kari weydo. Badanaa waxaa fiican in sixir macquul ah aad wax ku iibiso kuna dedaasho tayada iyo adeega aad bixinayso.

Qaabka aad sixirka u dejisay sidee u muuqdaa markaad barbar dhigto shirkadaha kale ee tartanka kugula jira.

Barbar dhig qiimaha sixirkaaga kuwa shirkadaha kale ee kula loolamaaya. Sixirka qiimahoodu ma ka sareeyaa sixirkaaga, makaa hoseeyaa, ma la midbaa? Sababtuse maxay tahay?

Proposed Location (goobta shaqada.)

Waxa laga yaabaa  in aanay weli shirkaddu cayiman goob gaar ah. Hada waxa la gaadhay waqtigii shirkadu ay ka fakiri lahayd  waxa ay rabto shirkaddu iyo meesha ay ka rabto. Shirkado badan ayaa marka ay bilawga yihiin isticmala guryahooda in muddo ah.

Halkan si kooban ugu sharax qorshahaaga goobta aad ku ganacsanayso maadaama ay saamaynayso maacaamiishaada.

Goobta aad ku ganacsanysaa muhiim miyay u tahay macaamiishaada? Haddii ay u tahay haa, sidee ayay ugu tahay?

  • Haddii ay macaamiishu yimaadaan goobtaada ganacsi:

Matahay meel ku haboon macaamiisha (suitable for customers)? Ma leedahay meel la dhigo baabuurta (parking)?, mise waa meel waddooyinka muhiimka ah ka baxsan.

Sawirkaagii maxay ka badashay?

Ma tahay meel macaamiishu rabaan ama ay rajaynayaan in ay yimaadaan?

Halkee ayay degan yihiin shirkaddaha kula loolamayaa? Miyay habboon tahay in aad ku dhawaato ama ka fogaato

Distribution channels (dariiqyada aad wax ku gaadhsiinayso):

Sidee ayaad u iibinaysaa badeecadda ama addeega shirkadda?

Ma tafaariiq (retail), Jummlad (wholesale), wakiilo (agents), wakiilo madaxbanaan (independent representatives).

Sales forecast (saadaasha iibka):

Hadda waxan soo sheegnay si kooban usoo sharaxnay badeecada, adeegyada, suuqgeynta iyo qorshaha lagu dhaqaayo shirkadda.

Waxaa haboon in halkan lagu sameeyo laba saadaalood (two forecasts):

  1. Qiyaasta ufiican (Best guess); taas oo ah waxa runta ah ee aad rajaynayso.
  2. Qaddiyada u xun (worst case); qiyaasta u hoosaysa  ee aad ku kal soonaan karto in aad gaadhi karto wax waliba ha dhacaane.

Qorshaha lagu shaqaynaayo (operational plan):

Sharrax shaqo maalmeedka maalin walba ee shirkadda, goobta ganacsiga, qalabaynta, dadka, geedi socodka iyo degaanada ku xeeran.

Production (tacab-soo-saar):

Sidee iyo meeshee laga soo saarayaa badeecaddaada ama adeegaaga?

Sharrax hannaan socodka shirkadda sida:

  • Dhawrida qalabka shirkadda (inventory control)
  • Horumarinta badeecadda (product development)
  • Farsamada tacab-soo-saarka iyo qiimahooda (production techniques and costs)
  • Tayo-dhawrka (quality control)
  • Adeega macaamiisha (customer services)

Location (goobta):

Meel noocee ah ayaad uga baahan tahay goobta ganacsiga? Si fiican u qeex nooca goobta ganacsi ee aad rabto.

Muuqaalka looga baahan yahay goobta ganacsiga (physical requirements):

  • Nooca dhismaha loo baahan yahay (type of building).
  • Boos intee leeg ayaa loo baahan yahay in ay goobtu ganacsigu yeelato (amount space).
  • Seerayn (zoning).
  • Malaga helayaa goobtaas korontada iyo biyaha (power and utility).

Jidka loo marayo goobta ganacsiga (access):

Waxaa muhiim ah in goobta aad ka samaynayso ganacsigu ay ku habboon tahay gaaddiidka iyo cidka keenaysa badeecada (suppliers).

Miyaad u baahantahay in meel si fudud loo soo mari karo aad samayso (easy walk-in access)?

Maxay tahay baahida shirkaddani u qabto in loo sameeyo  meelo la dhigo baabuurta ama meel u dhaw wadooyinka waaweyn, garoonada dayaaradaha, meelaha tareenada iyo gaadiidka sida xamuulka.

Construction (dhismo)? Badanaa shirkaddaha cusubi iskuma mashquuliyaan in ay dhisaan dhismayaal cusub, laakiin haddii aad qorshaynaysaan in aad dhistaan dhismayaal cusub waa in lagu talo galaa kharashka loo baahan yahay.

Cost: waa in shirkaddu qiyaastaa kharashka ku baxaaya dhismaha ay degayso, taas oo ay ku jirto kirada, dayactirka dhismayaasha, caymiska, kharashka lagu qurxinaayo meesha si meeshu u noqoto meel ku habboon ganacsi soona jiidata macaamiisha.

Halkan waxa kale oo aad ku sharraxdaa saacdaha shaqada, maalamaha fasax yada, samee shax aad u muuqan karta.

Sharciga degaanka (legal environment):

Sharrax ka bixi waxyaalahan soo socda:

  • Ruqsad (licence), sidee loo helayaa ruqsad aad ku shaqayso
  • Permits (ogolaanshaha in aad ka shaqayn karto, waxaa loo jeedaa in wadanka aad ka shaqaynaysaa kuu ogolyahay in aad ka shaqaysato wadanka ).
  • Caafimaadka goobta laga shaqaynaayo (hygiene and sanitation of the premises and the area)
  • sharciyada deegaanka (environmental regulations)
  • Caymis ku jirid (insurance coverage)
  • Trademarks (summada ganacsiga), copyright (xuquuqda daabacadda) and etc


siyaabaha ugu fudud ee qof isku hormarin karo


Allaah ayaa mahad oo idil iska leh,nabadgalyo iyo naxariisina Nabigeena Muxammad ah korkiisa Allaha yeelo.

Qoraalkan oo taxane ahandoona haduu Alle idmo, kuna saabsanaandoona “Habka ugu sahlan ee is-hormarinta qofeed”. Sababaha igu kalifay in aan wax ka qoro mowduucan ayaa ah, kadib marki aan u kuur galay qoraalada loogu faa’iideeyo bahweeynta soomaaliyeed, gaar ahaan kuwa is-hormarinta ku salaysan, ayaan arkay in eey aad u yaryihin shacabkuna u baahanyahay in badan oo wacyi galin ah. Sidoo kale waxaa badatay kuwo ku wajahan dhanka siyaasadda. Waxaa kaloo soo badanaya da’ yarta rabta inay ku tilaabsat

o mustaqbal fiican, una baahan hagid joogta ah iyo tusaaleyn wacan. Sidoo kale, in badan oo bulshadda ka tirsan ayaa si joogta ah u isticmaasha internetka, akhriyana qoraaladda lasoo qoro. Intaas iyo in kasii badan ayaa igu dhiira galisey in aan wax ka idhaahdo/qoro mowduucaan kaas oo aan ugu tala galay in aan kaga qeyb qaato dhiira galinta cid kasta oo daneyneysa in eey is hormariso.

Qeybta 1-aad ee maanta aan rabo in aan usoo gudbiyo akhristayaasha waxay tahay: Waa maxay is-hormarin qofeed? Maxayse tahay muhiimadda ay leedahay? Waa maxayse tiirarka ay ku qotonto ama ku taagantahay?

Muddo dheer oo aan u kuur galay hormarinta qofka (Personal development) iyo hormarinta maamulka (Administration development), waxaa iiga soo baxday in macnaha rasmiga ah ee hormarinta qofeed aysan laheyn qeexid laysku waafaqsan yahay ama heshiis lagu wada yahay. Qoraa kastana si buu u qeexaa, in kastoo isku dayo badan ay sameeyeen khubaradda maamulka, tababarayaasha, iyo kuwa xiiseeya Is-hormarinta qofeed, ayey ku sheegeen sida tan: Is-hormarinta qofeed: waa hannaan shareecada islaamka waafaqsan, qofkuna ku hormarinayo ama ku raadinayo xirfad, cilmi, dhaqaale, hab-dhaqan toosan, iyo xeriir bulsho, taas oo gaarsiinaysa inuu dareemo raali ahaansho(personal satisfaction) iyo nabad gudaha ah, kuna kaalmeyneysa inuu diiradda saaro sida uu ugaari lahaa hadafyadiisa nololeed, iyo sida uu ugu guulaysan lahaa culaysyada soo wajaha, ee hakinaya horusocodkiisa.

Qeexitaankaan wuxuu ku dhisan yahay qodobo muhiim ah oo kala ah:

Hadafka/Yoolka guud ee qofka muslimka ahi uu nolosha ka leeyahay ayaa waxeey tahay in uu gaaro raali ahaanshaha Alle, galana Janadiisa. Sidaa daraadeed, waa inuu udhaqmaa qofku hab gaarsiinkara Yoolkaa, una camal falaa si uu u gaaro hadafkaas. Intaas waxaa dheer dhamaan Ahdaafta kale waxay kaalmeynayaan hadafkaas nololeed ee guud. Tusaale ahaan Ahdaafta kale ee qofka waxaa ka mid ah inuu hanti tabco. Hadaba waa in lagu tabcaa wado Xalaal ah si ay u kaalmeeyso hadafka guud ee nolosha.

Isku soo wada duuboo Is-hormarinta waa in ay tahay mid ku salaysan ama waafaqsan diinta Islaamka. Qofka loogama baahna inuu ka raadiyo Is-hormarintiisa waxyaabo aan waa faqsaneeyn shareecadda Islaamka. Is-horamrinta waxaa sal u ah xoojinta sidii uu u dahiri lahaa qofku nafsadiisa si uu u gaaro dhameystirnaanta Iimaanka ama sare ugu qaado. isla markaana uu ka fogaado wax kasta oo hoos u dhigaya Iimaankiisa. Sidoo kale Is-hormarintu kuma xirna da’ ama xili go’an, ee waa hawl joogta ah oo looga baahanyahay qofka. Isla markaana uu ku dadaalo wax kasta oo ka qeyb qaadanaya hormarkiisa, ha ahaato Cibaado fara badan, cilmi kororsi, abuuris xeriir fiican oo bulshada dhexdeeda ah.

Muhiimadda ay leedahay Is-hormarintu waxa ka mid ah:

* Ugu horeyn ma jiraan aduunkaan wax sugan, ee isbedel joogta ah ayaynu ku jirnaa, sidaa darteed waxaa loo baahanyahay sidii loola qabsan lahaa isbadaladaas, uuna qofku si joogta ah isu hormarinlahaa si uusan uga harin Tareenka nolosha.

* Waxaa kaloo jirta baahi joogta ah oo ah dhinaca xirfada iyo macluumaadka intaba, qof kastana wuxuu u baahan yahay si joogta ah inuu u baadi goobo.

* Suuqyadda shaqadda ma naxariistaan ee waxay u baahanyihiin xirfado cusub iyo macluumaad dheeri ah. Hadii aadan aheyn qof si joogta ah isku hormariya, tartanka shaqadda waad ka hareysaa, wayna kugu adkaaneysaa in aad la qabsatid shaqadda.

* Culaysyadda nolosha soo wajaha weey badan yihiin sidaa daraadeed waxaad u baahan tahay in aad markasta baratid tabaha iyo sidii aad ula dhaqmi laheed ama uga gudbi laheed Culeeysyadaas.

Tiirarka eey ku taagan tahay Is-hormarinta

Wax kasta sal iyo asaas ayey leeyihiin, hadaba halkan waxaan si kooban ugu sharxi doonaa Shanta Tiir ee Is-hormarintu ku taagantahay. Waxayna kala yihiin sidan hoos ku qoran:

  1. Waa in aad istaqaano

Qofku waa in uu isweydiiyaa kumaa tahay? Maxeyse tahay awoodaada iyo xirfadda aad leedahay? Hadii uusan qofku su’aalahaas jawaab rasmi ah u helin, waxaa ku adkaan doonta inuu Is-hormariyo.

  1. Waa in eey kuu cadahay waxa aad ka damacsantahay noloshaada.

Waxaa loola jeedaa qofku waa in uu leeyahay qoraal cad oo cadeynaya hadafka uu leeyahay kuwo dhow (Short term goals) iyo kuwo fogba (Long term goals). Hadafyada fogi waa kuwa lagu higsado gaaritankooda mudo ka badan sanad sida in uu qaato degree jaamacadeed iwm. Hadafyada dhawi waa kuwa lagu higsado gaaritaankooda mudo sand ama ka yar ah,waxeeyna u adeegaan sidii lagu gaari lahaa hadafyada fog sida barasho loqadeed iwm. Taasi macnaheedu waa in qofku leeyahay meel uu ka duulayo, ogyahayna meesha uu u socdo, laakiin hadii uusan ogeyn meesha uu u socdo iyo meesha uu hada joogo waxaa cad in uu ku fashilmayo is-hormarintiisa.

  1. Waa in aad taqaanid sida aad ula dhaqmi laheyd naftaada iyo dadka kale intaba

Waa in aad taqaanid waxa aad ka rabtid ama ka damacsantahay nafsadaada iyo tan dadka kaleba, aadna ka dhaadhicin kartid waxa aad damacsantahay, weydiin kartidna waxa aadan fahmin, adigoo adeegsanaya qaabka iyo sida ugu wacan ee lagula xeriiro dadka kale. Hadaba waa lama huraan in aad hormarisid xirfadaha kaa kaalmeynaya xeriirka iyo bulshanimadda, isla markaana aad ogaatid in ay lama huraantahay in aad xeriir fiican la yeelatid dadka kale, ogowna waxa kula saxani, qof kale waa ay la qaldanaan karaan. Tusaale ahaan 20 qofood hadii aad weydiisid “Maxaa la dhahaa GUUL?” mid kasta sib uyuu kuugu sheegayaa taasoo ah sida uu u arko inay tahay guusha macnaheeda. Sidaa darted waa in aad taqaanaa sida aad ula dhaqmi laheyd naftaada iyo tan dadka kale intaba.

  1. Waa in aad leedahay xirfad aad kaga faa’iideysankartid hantidaada

Waxaa loola jeedaa in aad leedahay hanti aad uga maarmi kartid in aad dad kale wax weydiisatid.Soomaalida ayaa tiraahda “Bukto badan iyo Baryo badan waa la isku nacaa” Taasi waxay kugu dhiiri galinaysaa in aad abuuratid illo dhaqaaleed. Maxaa yeelay hadii aadan heysan lacag aad isku hormarisid ama aad isku maal galisid Is-hormarintu wey adag tahay in ay sidii la rabay noqoto.

  1. Waa in aad leedahay Xirfado aad wax isku bari kartid

Tani waxay tilmaameysaa awooda aad u leedahay in aad si fudud ama dhaqso ah ku heli kartid kuna kobcin kartid macluumaadka iyo cilmigaagaba, adigoo adeegsanaya marba xirfadda aad u baahantahay ee kaa kaalmeyneysa waxa aad ubaahantahay. Tusaale ahaan maanta oo caalamkii uu noqday tuulo oo kale (Global village), oo macluumaad kasta aad ku heli kartid muddo kooban, bal kawaran hadii aadan aqoonin sida loo adeegsado internet-ka. Sidaa daraadeed waa in aad abuurtaa amaba kordhisaa xirfadaha kugu saacidaya kororsiga cilmiga.

Shantaan tiir ee aan soo sheegay, ayaa u ah jiridka ay ku taagantahay Is-hormarinta, la’aantoodna ay adagtahay inuu qofku Is-hormariyo.

Gabagabo iyo Gunaanad

Qormadeenan 1-aad waxaan si kooban uga hadalnay “waa maxay Is-hormarinta qofeed? Muhiimadda eey leedahay iyo Tiirarka eey ku qotonto. Kulankeena xiga ayaan kusii lafo guri doonaa qeybaha kale ee mawduucaan. isku daygaan aan sameeyey ee ku aadan sida aan ugu faa’iideyn lahaa qofkasta oo jecel inuu Is-hormariyo. Wixii sixid qaladaad, tusaaleyn ama talo ahba adoo mahadsan fadlan iigu soo gudbi cinwaanadeydan hoose. Cabdikamaal Maxammed Sheekh C/laahi source: shaaciye,com

Adiguna dadaal! Ka dhiibo rayigaaga maqaalkan!